Benzoic acid, also known as Benzoin, is a molecular formula of C6h5cooh, a compound formed by the substitution of a hydrogen on a benzene ring by a carboxyl (-cooh). A scaly or needle-like crystallization of the smell of benzene or formaldehyde at room temperature. Its vapour has a strong irritation, after inhalation is easy to cause cough.
Slightly soluble in water, easily soluble in ethanol, ether and other organic solvents. Benzoic acid is a weak acid, stronger than fatty acids. They are similar in chemical properties, can form salt, ester, acyl halogen, amide, anhydride and so on, are not easy to be oxidized.
A hydrophilic substitution reaction can occur on the benzene ring of benzoic acid, which mainly gets the substitution product of the interstitial position. Benzoic acid is widely found in nature in the form of free acids, esters or their derivatives. Benzoic acid is often used as a drug or preservative, has the role of inhibiting the growth of fungi, bacteria, mold, medicine is usually applied to the skin, used to treat psoriasis skin diseases. Used in synthetic fibers, resins, coatings, rubber, tobacco industry. At first, benzoic acid was made by benzoin distillation or hydrolysis of alkaline water, and could also be made by hydrolysis of equine uric acid. The industrial benzoic acid is made by air oxidation toluene in the presence of cobalt, manganese and other catalysts, or by the release of phthalic anhydride water. Benzoic acid and its sodium salts can be used as antimicrobial agents for latex, toothpaste, jam or other foods, as well as for dyeing and printing of the mordant.