The acute toxicity of sodium benzoate is small, and the maximum non-action metering (MNL) of animals is 500mg/kg body weight. But it can be converted into a more toxic benzoic acid in the sour environment of the human gut. Ingestion of benzoic acid and its sodium salts in mice can lead to weight loss, diarrhea, bleeding, paralysis and even death.
The toxicity of benzoic acid is achieved by changing the permeability of cell membranes, inhibiting the absorption of amino acids in cell membranes, and inhibiting the activity of enzymes such as lipase through cell membranes. Benzoic acid has no chronic toxicity. The results of 8 consecutive weeks of acid feeding in rats showed no abnormal changes in the growth, propagation and morphology of the offspring of mice.
Other experiments have also shown that benzoic acid has no accumulative, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and antigen effects. Benzoic acid will degrade quickly in animals, benzoic acid (99%) mainly combined with glycine to form equine uric acid, the rest with glucose and formaldehyde combined to form 1-the first glucose acetaldehyde.